Equestria is a land rich in ambient magic due to unkown reasons. (At least for me.) Because of this most animals have gained some degree of intelligence, though for most not to the degree that they can talk. For example cows are completely sapient and can talk, but owls are merely intelligent and still make the same sounds you'd expect for an owl. However, most animals can understand Equish/English, and can carry out simple orders. Because of this carnivores are highly looked down upon in Equestria. Outside Equestria the normal animals are as dumb, stupid and instintual as you'd expect on earth.
The place where most of the cartoon show is focused and the residence of the mane six. A lot of stuff happens here and most chess pieces have visited it at one time, or at least plan to. The reason so much happens here is because of the magic of narrative causality. (Also perhaps because they are next to the Everfree Forest.)
The shining capital of Equestria where Princess Celestia and Princess Luna reside in Canterlot Castle.
A fairly large forest that has powerful magic of it's own. This magic seems to resist any order magic used on it such as trying to control its weather. It has yet to be completely explored and mapped because of how dangerous it is to traverse.
It also has the Castle of the Royal Pony Sisters within its woods.
Froggy Bottom Bog(Is this in the Everfree Forrest?)
A large bog that is the residence many creatures, including hydras.
A large gorge that is the residence of many Quarrey Eels.
A completely benign forrest located near Ponyville. It is where the Running of the Leaves takes place.
The main city of the Pegasi. It is the central hub of weather management for all of Equestria.
The city of mechanical wonder. Probably the most technologically advanced city in Equestria. It is the central hub for many industries and trade.